Title of the article:



Andrey F. Polomoshnov

Lev A. Polomoshnov

Information about the author/authors

Andrey F. Polomoshnov — DSc in Philosophy, Professor, Department of Economics, Philosophy and Social Disciplines, Don State Agrarian University, Krivoshlykova St., 24, 346493 the village of Persianovsky, Oktyabrsky Dist., Rostov region, Russia.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6312-9440
E-mail: paf1@mail.ru

Lev A. Polomoshnov — Post-graduate Student, Department of History of Foreign and National Philosophy, Institute of Philosophy and Socio-Political Sciences of the Southern Federal University, Dneprovskiy per., 116, 344065 Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2107-9574
E-mail: lgvel@mail.ru


Theory and history of culture




Vol. 66


pp. 67–80


March 05, 2021

Approved after reviewing

July 06, 2021

Date of publication

December 28, 2022



Index UDK


Index BBK



Liberal Russian reforms at the turn of the millennium actualize the issue of foreign cultural borrowing in the national discourse. The study, using examples of P. Ya. Chaadaev, F. M. Dostoevsky and N. A. Berdyaev analyzes the relationship between foreign cultural borrowings and traits of national character, which determine the attitude towards other cultures and towards qualitative transformations of society. All these concepts reflect the inconsistency of the respective features of the national character. The position of P. Ya. Chaadaev is contradictory. Whereas in Philosophical Letters he simultaneously ascribes to the Russian people a lack of innovation and a lack of soil, in Apology of the Madman, on the contrary, he sees in the Russian people a paradoxical unity of national conservatism and the ability to innovate. F. M. Dostoevsky perceives the basis of our national character a synthesis of national soil and universal responsiveness. N. A. Berdyaev formulates two antinomies of the Russian soul: 1) the antinomy of universalism and nationalism and 2) the antinomy of “boundless freedom of spirit” and “unheard-of servility”, without finding a convincing solution to these antinomies. The authors come to the conclusion that as a result of the interaction of foreign cultural innovations and the traits of the Russian national character associated with their perception, certain modes of antinomies identified by Russian thinkers are actualized in it. As a result, the national character informs a certain balance, providing a specific historical continuity and stability of its archetypal structures.


national character, Dostoevsky, Chaadaev, Berdyaev, national identity, foreign cultural borrowings.


1 Aksiuchits V. O russkom natsional'nom kharaktere [On Russian National Character]. In: Pravoslavie.Ru. Available at: https://pravoslavie.ru/87.html (Accessed 04 March 2021). (In Russian)

2 Amel'chenko S. N. Dekonstruktsiia mental'nogo koda rossiiskoi kul'tury v kontekste globalizatsii [Deconstruction of the Mental Code of Russian Culture in the Context of Globalization]. Filosofiia i kul'tura, 2013, no 2 (62), pp. 171–181. (In Russian)

3 Berdiaev N. A. Istoki i smysl russkogo kommunizma [The Origins and Meaning of Russian Communism]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1990. 224 p. (In Russian)

4 Berdiaev N. A. Russkaia ideia [Russian Idea]. St. Petersburg, Azbuka-klassika Publ., 2008. 318 p. (In Russian)

5 Berdiaev N. A. Sud'ba Rossii. Opyty po psikhologii voiny i natsional'nosti [The Fate of Russia. Experiments on the Psychology of War and Nationality]. Moscow, Mysl' Publ., 1990. 208 p. (In Russian)

6 Gorshkov M. K. Problemy natsional'noi bezopasnosti v informatsionnom obshchestve [National Security Problems in the Information Society]. Vlast', 2014, no 11, pp. 8–12. (In Russian)

7 Dostoevskii F. M. My v Evrope lish' Striutskie [We are merely Stryutskys in Europe]. In: Dostoevskii F. M. Dnevnik pisatelia: Izbrannye stranitsy [Writer's Diary: Selected Pages]. Moscow, Sovremennik Publ., 1989, pp. 372–376. (In Russian)

8 Dostoevskii F. M. Ob"iavlenie o podpiske na zhurnal “Vremia” na 1861 god [Announcement of Subscription to “Vremya” Magazine for 1861]. In: Dostoevskii F. M. Sobranie sochinenii: v 15 t. [Collected Works: in 15 Vols.]. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 1993, vol. 11, pp. 5–11. (In Russian)

9 Dostoevskii F. M. Primiritel'naia mechta vne nauki [A Conciliatory Dream outside of the Science]. In: Dostoevskii F. M. Dnevnik pisatelia: Izbrannye stranitsy [Writer's Diary: Selected Pages]. Moscow, Sovremennik Publ., 1989, pp. 368–372. (In Russian)

10 Dostoevskii F. M. Pushkin (ocherk) [Pushkin (essay) ]. In: Dostoevskii F. M. Dnevnik pisatelia: Izbrannye stranitsy [Writer's Diary: Selected Pages]. Moscow, Sovremennik Publ., 1989, pp. 523–537. (In Russian)

11 Kondakov I. V. Mental'naia dominanta rossiiskoi tsivilizatsii [Mental Dominant of Russian Civilization]. Filosofskie nauki, 2000, no 3, pp. 23–32. (In Russian)

12 Losskii N. O. Kharakter russkogo naroda [The Character of the Russian People]. Frankfurt-na-Maine, Posev Publ., 1957. 152 p. (In Russian)

13 Magaril S. A. K voprosu o russkom natsional'nom kharaktere [On the Russian National Character]. Sovremennaia nauchnaia mysl', 2014, no 2, pp. 34–48. (In Russian)

14 Moiseeva N. A. Natsional'nyi kharakter kak osnova ob"ektivatsii zhiznennykh tsennostei russkoi natsional'no-dukhovnoi kul'tury [National Character as the Basis for Objectification of Life Values of Russian National-spiritual Culture]. Voprosy kul'turologii, 2011, no 5, pp. 18–23. (In Russian)

15 Natsional'naia ideia Rossii: “Moia strana dolzhna byt', i dolzhna byt' vsegda!”, ili O tom, chto dolzhny delat' vlast' i obshchestvo, chtoby eto bylo tak: v 6 t. [The National Idea of Russia: “My Country should be, and should Always be!”, Or On what the Authorities and Society should do to make it so: in 6 Vols.]. V. I. Iakunin and other; ed. by S. S. Sulakshina. Moscow, Nauchnyi ekspert Publ., 2012, vol. 3, pp. 1499–2198. (In Russian)

16 Solzhenitsyn A. I. Rossiia v obvale [Russia in a Landslide]. Moscow, Russkii put' Publ., 2006. 208 p. (In Russian)

17 Fedotov G. P. Pis'ma o russkoi kul'ture [Letters about Russian Culture]. Fedotov G. P. Sud'ba i grekhi Rossii: v 2 t. [The Fate and Sins of Russia: in 2 Vols.]. St. Petersburg, Sofiia Publ., 1991. Vol. 2. 352 p. (In Russian)

18 Khramov I. V. Natsional'nyi kharakter i ego mental'nye osnovaniia [National character and its mental foundations: PhD Thesis, Summary]. Stavropol', 2004. 22 p. (In Russian)

19 Chaadaev P. Ia. Apologiia sumasshedshego [Apology for a Madman]. In: Chaadaev P. Ia. Stat'i i pis'ma [Articles and Letters]. Moscow, Sovremennik Publ., 1987, pp. 134–146. (In Russian)

20 Chaadaev P. Ia. Filosoficheskie pis'ma: pis'mo pervoe [Philosophical Letters: Letter One]. In: Chaadaev P. Ia. Stat'i i pis'ma [Articles and Letters]. Moscow, Sovremennik Publ., 1987, pp. 33–49. (In Russian)

21 Shapovalov V. F. Rossievedenie: uchebnoe posobie dlia vuzov [Russian Studies: a Textbook for Universities]. Moscow, FAIR-PRESS Publ., 2001. 576 p. (In Russian)